Użytkownik:6birc/O wretched Virtue!

Mój problem z WikicytatamiEdytuj

  1. Wikicytaty wymagają podawania źródeł, lecz zarazem schemat Wikicytatów nie pozwala na to, kiedy źródła oraz wersje układają się w skomplikowaną, wielojęzyczną i sprzeczną hierarchię.
  2. Podając źródła, można udowodnić istnienie czegoś. Lecz rzadko można w ten sposób udowodnić nieistnienie czegoś (tj. negatywnie zweryfikować reputowane źródło) bez posuwania się do zakazanego na Wikiprojektach original research.
  3. Tłumaczenia są niezbędne, lecz nie zawsze istnieje autorytatywne tłumaczenie ważnego cytatu albo jednego ze źródeł cytatu. Tu znowu trzeba złamać zakaz original research i dokonać tłumaczenia własnego – albo zostawić Wikicytaty mało użytecznymi.

W sekcji #Presentation schemes są moje próby różnych schematów prezentacji hierarchii wersji i źródeł jednego cytatu.

Próby te są równocześnie brudnopisem, w którym na żywo gromadziłem źródła.

6birc (dyskusja) 03:26, 12 sty 2014 (CET)

Typy relacji między źródłamiEdytuj

  • autor ("powiedziane przez", "napisane przez")
  • edycja ("zredagowane przez", "wydane przez")
  • tłumaczenie ("przetłumaczone przez")
  • przypisanie ("przypisane przez")
    • cytat ("zacytowane przez")
    • komentarz ("opowiedziane przez")
  • zdyskredytowanie ("zdyskredytowane przez", "zdementowane przez")

CytatEdytuj

„O nędzna cnoto, byłaś tedy tylko słowem, a ja cię czciłem jako coś rzeczywistego, ty zaś byłaś niewolnicą Losu.”

Presentation schemesEdytuj

Scheme 5Edytuj

An encyclopedic narrative describing history of the quote. / Encyklopedyczna narracja opisująca historię cytatu.

Scheme 4Edytuj

  • autor: Herkules
    • cytat: nieznany autor, fragmenty bezpańskich tragedii
      • cytowane przez: Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: ἄρα^
      • edycje: Fragmenty greckich tragedii (Nauck etc.)
        • cytowane przez: Earnest Cary, Herbert Baldwin Foster (w tłumaczenie: Dion Kasjusz, Historia Rzymu)
        • cytowane przez: Frank Cole Babbitt (w tłumaczeniu: Plutarch, O przesądach)
        • cytowane przez: Gregorius N. Bernardakis (w edycji: Plutarch, O przesądach)
      • cytowane (rzekomo) przez: Brutus
        • cytowane przez: Robert Leighton, ‎John Norman Pearson, The whole works
        • tłumaczenie: Robert Leighton, ‎John Norman Pearson, The whole works
        • cytat + tłumaczenie: Andrea Alciato, Emblemata
          • edycje: Antwerpen 1577, Augsburg 1531, Paris 1534
            • tłumaczenie: Memorial University of Newfoundland
          • cytat: William Laurence Brown, A comparative view of Christianity
          • tłumaczenie: William Laurence Brown, A comparative view of Christianity
        • cytat: Robert Burton, Cure of Melancholy, "Of Repulse"
        • cytowane przez: Dion Kasjusz, Historia Rzymu
          • cytat + tłumaczenie: William Laurence Brown, A comparative view of Christianity
          • dyskredytowane przez: Xylander
            • cytowane przez: William Laurence Brown, A comparative view of Christianity
          • dyskredytowane przez: Theodorus Prodromus
            • cytowane przez: Professor John H. Wright of Harvard University
              • cytowane przez: Emerson
          • cytat + polskie tłumaczenie: źródło nieznane
          • tłumaczenie: Professor John H. Wright of Harvard University
            • cytowane przez: Emerson
          • tłumaczenie: Emerson
          • cytat + tłumaczenie: Keith Maclennan, Horace: a poet for a new age (2010)
          • cytat + tłumaczenie: Charles Moore, A full inquiry into the subject of suicide (1790)
          • cytat + tłumaczenie: Forbes Winslow, The Anatomy of Suicide (1840)
        • cytat + tłumaczenie (łac.): John Owen, Diatriba de Divina Justitia (1658)
          • tłumaczenie (ang.): Hamilton (1794)
          • tłumaczenie (ang.) + edycja: R. Baynes, The works of John Owen (1826)
          • tłumaczenie (ang.): Christian Classics Ethereal Library (year?)
      • cytowane przez: Dion Kasjusz, Historia Rzymu
        • tłumaczenie: Earnest Cary, Herbert Baldwin Foster
      • cytowane (rzekomo) przez: tłumaczenie Plutarch, Żywot Brutusa
        • tłumaczenie: źródło nieznane
          • cytowane przez: angielska Wikipedia
            • dyskredytowane*
            • dyskredytowane przez: Charles Moore, A full inquiry into the subject of suicide (1790)
            • dyskredytowane przez: Forbes Winslow, The Anatomy of Suicide (1840)
      • cytowane przez: Plutarch, O przesądach
        • edycja: Gregorius N. Bernardakis
        • tłumaczenie: Goodwin
        • tłumaczenie: Frank Cole Babbitt
        • tłumaczenie: Dominique Ricard
        • cytat + tłumaczenie: William Laurence Brown, A comparative view of Christianity
    • cytat (rzekomo): Eurypides, Herkules
      • edycje: George Theodoridis 2012, Edward P. Coleridge 1891, Gilbert Murray (Perseus, Archive)
      • przypisanie: Dominique Ricard (w tłumaczeniu: Plutarch, O przesądach)
        • dyskredytowane*
      • przypisanie: Charles Moore, A full inquiry into the subject of suicide (1790)
        • dyskredytowane*
      • przypisanie: Forbes Winslow, The Anatomy of Suicide (1840)
        • dyskredytowane*

*) przeze mnie

Scheme 3Edytuj

  • O nędzna cnoto, byłaś tedy tylko słowem, a ja cię czciłem jako coś rzeczywistego, ty zaś byłaś niewolnicą Losu.[1]
  • O wretched Virtue, thou wert but a name, and yet I worshipped thee as real indeed; but now, it seems, thou were but fortune's slave.[2]
  • Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε
    Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ.[3][4][5][6][7]
    • O wretched Valour, thou wert but a name,
      And yet I worshipped thee as real indeed;
      But now, it seems, thou wert but Fortune's slave.[8]
    • Poor virtue! A mere name thou art, I find, But I did practise thee as real![9]
    • Croyant à ton pouvoir, je t'offrais mon hommage,
      Inutile vertu! mais tu n'es qu'un vain nom.[10]
    • O wretched Virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name. Thou art also the slave of fortune.[11]
    • Infelix virtus; & solis provida verbis,
      Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?[12]
      • O wretched virtue! I believed thee true,
        But find thee now the slave of fortune too.[11]
      • Unhappy virtue, wise only in words, why in life's flux do you yield to Mistress Fortune?[13]
    • Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow.[14]
    • O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou.[15]
    • ῀Ο τλήμοιν ἀρετή ὡς οὐδίρ, &c.[16]
      • O! wretched virtue, thou art regarded as nothing &c.[16]
    • Poor virtue! thou wast but a name, and mere jest,
      And I, choust fool, did practise thee in earnest[17]
    • O misera virtus! ergo nihil quam verba eras! atqui ego te tanquam rem exercebam; sed tu serviebas fortunæ.
      O wretched virtue! Thou wast, then, nothing but words! Yet I cultivated thee as something real, while thou wast but the slave of fortune.[18]
    • O wretched Virtue, you were but a word. I followed you, but you were Fortune's slave.[19]
    • O wretched virtue, thou art a bare name! I mistook thee for a substance. But thou thyself art the slave of Fortune.[20][21]
    • ? (Latin)[22]
      • ? (English)[23]
      • O wretched virtue! how mere a nothing art thou, but a name.[24][25]
PrzypisyEdytuj
  1. źródło nieznane
    według ...
  2. błędnie przypisywane Plutarch: The Parallel Lives, Vol. VI, "The Life of Brutus" (uchicago, gutenberg, gutenberg2, perseus-en, perseus-gr, mit)
    według angielskiej Wikipedii
  3. nieznany poeta, Fragmenta tragica adespota ("fragmenty bezpańskich tragedii"), linie 374.1, 374.2 (WebCite, archive.is)
    przez Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: ἄρα^. Cytat: “ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ᾽ ἦσθα” Trag.Adesp.374;
    przez Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta w edycjach: August Nauck (1856, 1870, 1889 – str. 910) oraz Bruno Snell (1968) oraz Richard Kannicht, Bruno Snell (1971, 1981)
    przez Earnest Cary, Herbert Baldwin Foster, Dio's Roman history (1914), page 217, footnote 1
    przez Frank Cole Babbitt, translation of Plutarch Superstition, section 2, foot note 4. Context: Author unknown; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 910, Adespota, No. 374.
    przez Gregorius N. Bernardakis, edycja Plutarch, De superstitione, section 1, page 405, foot note 2. Context: Nauck. p. 698
  4. błędnie przypisywane: Eurypides, Herakles szalejący (416 p.n.e.) (English George Theodoridis 2012, Greek Edward P. Coleridge 1891, Greek Gilbert Murray (Perseus, Archive))
    przez Dominique Ricard, francuskie tłumaczenie Przesądów Plutarcha
  5. Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Historiae Romanae (Earnest Cary, Herbert Baldwin Foster, Ed.), book 47, chapter 49, line 2 (Perseus, Archive). Context: καὶ ἀναβοήσας τοῦτο δὴ τὸ Ἡράκλειον,
    ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ᾽ ἦσθ᾽, ἐγὼ δέ σε
    ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν: σὺ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ,
    παρεκάλεσέ τινα τῶν συνόντων, ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀποκτείνῃ.
    przez ...
  6. Plutarch, De superstitione (edition by Gregorius N. Bernardakis), section 1. Context: θρήνων δὲ καὶ ὀδυρμῶν οὐκ ἄξιον ἀλλ᾽ αἵτινές εἰσι τοιαῦται κρίσεις καὶ ὑπολήψεις
    ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ᾽ ἦσθ᾽ ἐγὼ δέ σε
    ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν
    ἀφεὶς τὴν πλουτοποιὸν ἀδικίαν καὶ τὴν γόνιμον ἁπάσης ἡδονῆς ἀκολασίαν, ταύτας ἄξιόν ἐστιν οἰκτίρειν ὁμοῦ καὶ δυσχεραίνειν, ὅτι πολλὰ νοσήματα καὶ πάθη καθάπερ εὐλὰς καὶ σκώληκας ἐντίκτουσι ταῖς ψυχαῖς παροῦσαι.
  7. błędnie przypisywane: Eurypides, Herakles szalejący (416 p.n.e.) (English George Theodoridis 2012, Greek Edward P. Coleridge 1891, Greek Gilbert Murray (Perseus, Archive))
    przez Dominique Ricard [not Richard], tłumaczenie na język francuski Plutarcha O przesądach: De la superstition (archive.is, wikiwix). Cytat: Ce sont les vers qu'Euripide, dans son Hercule furieux, fait prononcer à ce héros mourant sur le mont Oeta. Tłumaczenie: To z poematu Eurypidesa, w którym wściekły Herkules postanawia umrzeć na Górze Oeta.
  8. Earnest Cary, Herbert Baldwin Foster, translation of Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Historiae Romanae, book 47, chapter 49, line 2. Context: He first uttered aloud this sentence of Heracles: ~ Then he called upon one of the bystanders to kill him.
  9. Frank Cole Babbitt, translation of Plutarch Superstition, section 2
  10. Dominique Ricard [not Richard], tłumaczenie na język francuski Plutarcha O przesądach: De la superstition (archive.is, wikiwix)
  11. 11,0 11,1 William Laurence Brown, "A comparative view of Christianity: and of the other forms of religion ..." (1826), tom 2, str. 281. Cytat 1: The saying of Brutus, on the loss of the battle of Philippi, is well known. "O wretched virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name. Thou art also the slave of fortune." Such a speech could never have proceeded from the mouth of a real Christian. We know that whatever may befall us, our duty is the sure road to happiness, if not in this, at least in a future world; and every sacrifice which we make on its account will be amply compensated. But such prospects were hidden from the view of the heathen sages. Their morality was mere speculation, because it was not enforced by sufficient motives. They tell us that we must conquer our passions, and acquire habits of self-command; but all their enforcements are derived from views merely temporal, or from the abstract beauty of a well regulated mind. Their precepts engage our assent; but their motives are devoid of energy. All the glory which they attach to the character of their wise men, and the self-applause which accompanies it, are very insufficient to induce mankind to relinquish their favourite propensities or their predominant passions. Cytat 2: According to Dion Cassius, he repeated two verses, which that author calls the saying of Hercules, and are as follow: "Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε / Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ." It is uncertain from what poet these verses are taken. Xylander, a commentator of Dion Cassius, says, in a note on this passage, that he recollects not to have seen them anywhere else as they stand in this historian. Plutarch, in his book on Superstition, has quoted part of them. Alciatus, in his Emblemata, has thus rendered them in Latin: "Infelix virtus et solis provida verbis, / Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?" They may thus be expressed in English: "O wretched virtue! I believed thee true, / But find thee now the slave of fortune too."
  12. Andrea Alciato, Emblemata (1531): "Fortuna virtutem superans" ("Emblema CXIX." in edition Antwerpen 1577, "Emblema CXX" in editions Augsburg 1531 or Paris 1534)
  13. Memorial University of Newfoundland "Emblem 120", English translation
  14. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", pp. 226–227. Context: This was like the doleful speech falsely ascribed to the patriot Brutus: "Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow." Here was a question of an immoral law; a question agitated for ages, and settled always in the same way by every great jurist, that an immoral law cannot be valid. Cicero, Grotius, Coke, Blackstone, Burlamaqui, Vattel, Burke, Jefferson, do all affirm this, and I cite them, not that they can give evidence to what is indisputable, but because, though lawyers and practical statesmen, the habit of their profession did not hide from them that this truth was the foundation of States. Here was the question, Are you for man and for the good of man; or are you for the hurt and harm of man?
  15. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "Notes: The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", page 589. Quote: Page 226, note 1. Professor John H. Wright of Harvard University has kindly furnished me with the passage from Dio Cassius, xlvii. 49, where it is said of Brutus:— [ gap: ] —which he renders, "He cried out this sentiment of Heracles, 'O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou;' and called upon one of those with him to slay him." Professor Wright adds that Theodorus Prodromus, a Byzantine poet of the twelfth century, said, "What Brutus says (O Virtue, etc.) I pronounce to be ignoble and unworthy of Brutus's soul." It seems very doubtful whence the Greek verses came.
  16. 16,0 16,1 Robert Leighton, ‎John Norman Pearson, The whole works of the most reverend father in God. Context: The saying of Brutus, "O! wretched virtue, thou art regarded as nothing &c." ["῀Ο τλήμοιν ἀρετή ὡς οὐδίρ, &c." – O= tlh\moin a)reth\ w(s ou)di\r] is well known; [...]
  17. Goodwin, translation of Plutarch, De superstitione, pp. 168-169, section 1. Context: But such opinions and conceits as these,— ~, and for thee have I quitted injustice, the way to wealth, and excess, the parent of all true pleasure,—these are the thoughts that call at once for our pity and indignation; for they will engender swarms of diseases, like fly-blows and vermin, in our minds.
  18. Robert Burton, Cure of Melancholy, "Of Repulse". Context: It is not honesty, learning, worth, wisdom, that prefers men (the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong), but, as the wise man said, chance, and sometimes a ridiculous chance: casus plerumque ridiculus multos elevavit. ’Tis fortune’s doings, as they say, which made Brutus now dying exclaim, O misera virtus! ergo nihil quam verba eras! atqui ego te tanquam rem exercebam; sed tu serviebas fortunæ. ["O wretched virtue! Thou wast, then, nothing but words! Yet I cultivated thee as something real, while thou wast but the slave of fortune."] Believe it hereafter, O my friends! Virtue serves fortune.
    edycja: Henry Craik, English Prose (1916), Vol. II. Sixteenth Century to the Restoration
  19. Keith Maclennan, Horace: a poet for a new age (2010), page 7. Context: Marcus Brutus' last words, as he died at Philippi (~ – Dio 47.49.2) were said to be a lament for the failure of Stoic virtue to bring about the realization of his own ideals (...).
  20. Charles Moore, A full inquiry into the subject of suicide (1790), vol. 1, pp. 219–220, footnote E. Context: Cassius ordered his freedman to kill him (an usual mode of suicide in those days), which he executed by severing his head from his body. Brutus, after having taken an affectionate leave of his friends and having assured them, that he was only angry with fortune for his country’s sake, since he esteemed himselt in his death more happy than his conquerors, advised them to provide for their own safety; and then retiring he used the assistance of his intimate Strato to run his sword through his body. This is Plutarch’s account in his life. But Dion Cassius (Lib. XLVII.) puts the words of disappointment and chagrin into Brutus’s mouth at his death making him quote a passage from Euripides in his Hercules furens. “O wretched virtue, thou art a bare name! I mistook thee for a substance. But thou thyself art the slave of Fortune.”
  21. Forbes Winslow, The Anatomy of Suicide (1840), "Suicides of the ancients", page 12 (Google, Archive). Context: Plutarch makes Brutus die most stoically. After having taken an affectionate leave of his friends, and having assured them that he was only angry with fortune for his country’s sake, since he esteemed himself in his death more happy than his conquerors, he advised them to provide for their own safety. He then retired, and, with the assistance of Strato, he ran his sword through his body. Dion Cassius (Lib. xlvii) represents Brutus as far from acting the stoic at his last moments. He is said just before his death to have quoted the following passage from Euripides – “O wretched virtue! thou art a bare name! I mistook thee for a substance; but thou thyself art the slave of fortune.”
  22. John Owen, Diatriba de Divina Justitia (1658)
  23. Hamilton, translation (1794) of John Owen, Diatriba de Divina Justitia (1658)
  24. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, edition + translation (year?) of John Owen, A dissertation on Divine Justice (1658), Chapter I.
  25. R. Baynes, The works of John Owen (1826), edition + translation of John Owen, A dissertation on Divine Justice (1658), Chapter I., page 345. Context: In almost all ages, there have existed some, who have denied the being of a God, although but very few, and these the most abandoned. And as mankind, for the most part, have submitted to the evidence of a divine existence; so there never has existed one, who has ever preferred an indictment of injustice against God, or who hath not declared him to be infinitely just. The despairing complaints of some in deep calamities; the unhallowed expostulations of others at the point of death, do not bespeak the real sentiments of the man, but the misery of his situation. As for instance, that expostulation of Job x. 3. ‘Is it good unto thee that thou shouldest oppress?’ And among the Gentiles, that of Brutus, ‘O wretched virtue! how mere a nothing art thou, but a name.’ And that furious exclamation of Titus, when dying, related by Suetonius, ‘who, pulling aside his curtains, and looking up to the heavens, complained, that his life was taken from him, undeservedly, and unjustly.’ Of the same kind was that late dreadful epiphonema [Footnote: A sudden unconnected exclamation.] of a despairing Italian, related by Mersennus, who, speaking of God and the devil, in dread contempt of divine justice, exclaimed, ‘Let the strongest take me.’ But as ‘the judgments of God unsearchable, and his ways past finding out,’ those who have refused to submit to his absolute dominion and supreme jurisdiction (some monstrous human characters), have been hardy enough to assert that there is no God, rather than venture to call him unjust. Hence that common couplet. ‘Marmoreo tumulo Licinus jacet, at Cato parvo, / Pompeius nullo, credimus esse deos?’ ‘Licinus lies buried in a marble tomb; Cato in a mean one; / Pompey has none: can we believe that there are gods?’ And hence Ulysses is introduced by Euripides, expressing his horror of the gormandizing of the man-devouring Cyclops, in these verses: ‘O, Jupiter, behold such violations of hospitality; for if thou regardest them not, / Thou art in vain accounted Jupiter: for thou canst be no god.’

Scheme 2Edytuj

  • O nędzna cnoto, byłaś tedy tylko słowem, a ja cię czciłem jako coś rzeczywistego, ty zaś byłaś niewolnicą Losu.
    1. źródło nieznane
      według ...
  • O wretched Virtue, thou wert but a name, and yet I worshipped thee as real indeed; but now, it seems, thou were but fortune's slave.
    1. błędnie przypisywane Plutarch: The Parallel Lives, Vol. VI, "The Life of Brutus" (uchicago, gutenberg, gutenberg2, perseus-en, perseus-gr, mit)
      według angielskiej Wikipedii
  • Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε
    Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ.
    1. nieznany poeta, Fragmenta tragica adespota ("fragmenty bezpańskich tragedii"), linie 374.1, 374.2 (WebCite, archive.is)
      przez Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: ἄρα^. Cytat: “ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ᾽ ἦσθα” Trag.Adesp.374;
      przez Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta w edycjach: August Nauck (1856, 1870, 1889 – str. 910) oraz Bruno Snell (1968) oraz Richard Kannicht, Bruno Snell (1971, 1981)
    2. błędnie przypisywane Eurypides: Herakles szalejący (416 p.n.e.). Tekst ang./gr.
      przez Dominique Ricard, francuskie tłumaczenie Przesądów Plutarcha
    • Croyant à ton pouvoir, je t'offrais mon hommage,
      Inutile vertu! mais tu n'es qu'un vain nom.
      1. Dominique Ricard [not Richard], tłumaczenie na język francuski Plutarcha O przesądach: De la superstition (archive.is, wikiwix). Cytat: Ce sont les vers qu'Euripide, dans son Hercule furieux, fait prononcer à ce héros mourant sur le mont Oeta. Tłumaczenie: To z poematu Eurypidesa, w którym wściekły Herkules postanawia umrzeć na Górze Oeta.
      2. Herkules (George Theodoridis 2012, Edward P. Coleridge 1891, Gilbert Murray)
    • O wretched Virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name. Thou art also the slave of fortune.
      1. William Laurence Brown, "A comparative view of Christianity: and of the other forms of religion ..." (1826), tom 2, str. 281. Cytat 1: The saying of Brutus, on the loss of the battle of Philippi, is well known. "O wretched virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name. Thou art also the slave of fortune." Such a speech could never have proceeded from the mouth of a real Christian. We know that whatever may befall us, our duty is the sure road to happiness, if not in this, at least in a future world; and every sacrifice which we make on its account will be amply compensated. But such prospects were hidden from the view of the heathen sages. Their morality was mere speculation, because it was not enforced by sufficient motives. They tell us that we must conquer our passions, and acquire habits of self-command; but all their enforcements are derived from views merely temporal, or from the abstract beauty of a well regulated mind. Their precepts engage our assent; but their motives are devoid of energy. All the glory which they attach to the character of their wise men, and the self-applause which accompanies it, are very insufficient to induce mankind to relinquish their favourite propensities or their predominant passions. Cytat 2: According to Dion Cassius, he repeated two verses, which that author calls the saying of Hercules, and are as follow: "Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε / Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ." It is uncertain from what poet these verses are taken. Xylander, a commentator of Dion Cassius, says, in a note on this passage, that he recollects not to have seen them anywhere else as they stand in this historian. Plutarch, in his book on Superstition, has quoted part of them. Alciatus, in his Emblemata, has thus rendered them in Latin: "Infelix virtus et solis provida verbis, / Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?" They may thus be expressed in English: "O wretched virtue! I believed thee true, / But find thee now the slave of fortune too."
    • Infelix virtus; & solis provida verbis,
      Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?
      1. Andrea Alciato, Emblemata (1531): "Fortuna virtutem superans" ("Emblema CXIX." in edition Antwerpen 1577, "Emblema CXX" in editions Augsburg 1531 or Paris 1534)
      • O wretched virtue! I believed thee true,
        But find thee now the slave of fortune too.
      • Unhappy virtue, wise only in words, why in life's flux do you yield to Mistress Fortune?
        1. Memorial University of Newfoundland "Emblem 120", English translation
    • Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow.
      1. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", pp. 226–227. Quote: This was like the doleful speech falsely ascribed to the patriot Brutus: "Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow." Here was a question of an immoral law; a question agitated for ages, and settled always in the same way by every great jurist, that an immoral law cannot be valid. Cicero, Grotius, Coke, Blackstone, Burlamaqui, Vattel, Burke, Jefferson, do all affirm this, and I cite them, not that they can give evidence to what is indisputable, but because, though lawyers and practical statesmen, the habit of their profession did not hide from them that this truth was the foundation of States. Here was the question, Are you for man and for the good of man; or are you for the hurt and harm of man?
    • O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou.
      1. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "Notes: The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", page 589. Quote: Page 226, note 1. Professor John H. Wright of Harvard University has kindly furnished me with the passage from Dio Cassius, xlvii. 49, where it is said of Brutus:— [ gap: ] —which he renders, "He cried out this sentiment of Heracles, 'O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou;' and called upon one of those with him to slay him." Professor Wright adds that Theodorus Prodromus, a Byzantine poet of the twelfth century, said, "What Brutus says (O Virtue, etc.) I pronounce to be ignoble and unworthy of Brutus's soul." It seems very doubtful whence the Greek verses came.
    • "O! wretched virtue, thou art regarded as nothing &c." [""] | "Robert Leighton, ‎John Norman Pearson, "The whole works of the most reverend father in God" | The saying of Brutus, "O! wretched virtue, thou art regarded as nothing &c." [""] is well known; [...]"

Scheme 1Edytuj

  • O nędzna cnoto, byłaś tedy tylko słowem, a ja cię czciłem jako coś rzeczywistego, ty zaś byłaś niewolnicą Losu.
  • O wretched Virtue, thou wert but a name, and yet I worshipped thee as real indeed; but now, it seems, thou were but fortune's slave.[1]
  • Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε
    Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ.[2][3][4]
    • Croyant à ton pouvoir, je t'offrais mon hommage,
      Inutile vertu! mais tu n'es qu'un vain nom.[5][6][7]
    • O wretched Virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name.[8]
    • Infelix virtus; & solis provida verbis,
      Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?[9]
      • O wretched virtue! I believed thee true,
        But find thee now the slave of fortune too.
      • Unhappy virtue, wise only in words, why in life's flux do you yield to Mistress Fortune?[10]
    • Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow.[11]
    • O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou.[12]
PrzypisyEdytuj
  1. Według angielskiej Wikipedii w Plutarch: The Parallel Lives, Vol. VI, "The Life of Brutus" (uchicago, gutenberg, gutenberg2, perseus-en, perseus-gr, mit). Lecz tego cytatu tam nie ma.
  2. nieznany poeta, "Fragmenta tragica adespota" ("Fragmenty bezpańskich tragedii"), linie 374.1, 374.2 (WebCite, archive.is)
  3. "Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta" w edycjach: August Nauck (1856, 1870, 1889 – str. 910) oraz Bruno Snell (1968) oraz Richard Kannicht, Bruno Snell (1971, 1981)
  4. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon": ἄρα^
  5. Eurypides: Herakles szalejący (416 p.n.e.). Tekst. Słowa wściekłego Herkulesa, gdy postanowił umrzeć na Górze Oeta.
  6. Plutarch: O przesądach. Tłumaczenie na język francuski Dominique Ricard [not Richard]: De la superstition (archive.is, wikiwix). Cytat: Ce sont les vers qu'Euripide, dans son Hercule furieux, fait prononcer à ce héros mourant sur le mont Oeta. Tłumaczenie: To z poematu Eurypidesa, w którym wściekły Herkules postanawia umrzeć na Górze Oeta.
  7. Herkules (George Theodoridis 2012, Edward P. Coleridge 1891, Gilbert Murray)
  8. William Laurence Brown, "A comparative view of Christianity: and of the other forms of religion ..." (1826), tom 2, str. 281. Cytat 1: The saying of Brutus, on the loss of the battle of Philippi, is well known. "O wretched virtue! I have hitherto cultivated and served thee as a reality; but I find that thou art but a name. Thou art also the slave of fortune." Such a speech could never have proceeded from the mouth of a real Christian. We know that whatever may befall us, our duty is the sure road to happiness, if not in this, at least in a future world; and every sacrifice which we make on its account will be amply compensated. But such prospects were hidden from the view of the heathen sages. Their morality was mere speculation, because it was not enforced by sufficient motives. They tell us that we must conquer our passions, and acquire habits of self-command; but all their enforcements are derived from views merely temporal, or from the abstract beauty of a well regulated mind. Their precepts engage our assent; but their motives are devoid of energy. All the glory which they attach to the character of their wise men, and the self-applause which accompanies it, are very insufficient to induce mankind to relinquish their favourite propensities or their predominant passions. Cytat 2: According to Dion Cassius, he repeated two verses, which that author calls the saying of Hercules, and are as follow: "Ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ´ ἦσθ´· ἐγὼ δέ σε / Ὡς ἔργον ἤσκουν· σὺ δ´ ἄρ´ ἐδούλευες τύχῃ." It is uncertain from what poet these verses are taken. Xylander, a commentator of Dion Cassius, says, in a note on this passage, that he recollects not to have seen them anywhere else as they stand in this historian. Plutarch, in his book on Superstition, has quoted part of them. Alciatus, in his Emblemata, has thus rendered them in Latin: "Infelix virtus et solis provida verbis, / Fortunam in rebus cur sequeris dominam?" They may thus be expressed in English: "O wretched virtue! I believed thee true, / But find thee now the slave of fortune too."
  9. Andrea Alciato, Emblemata (1531): "Fortuna virtutem superans" ("Emblema CXIX." in edition Antwerpen 1577, "Emblema CXX" in editions Augsburg 1531 or Paris 1534)
  10. Memorial University of Newfoundland "Emblem 120", English translation
  11. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", pp. 226–227. Quote: This was like the doleful speech falsely ascribed to the patriot Brutus: "Virtue, I have followed thee through life, and I find thee but a shadow." Here was a question of an immoral law; a question agitated for ages, and settled always in the same way by every great jurist, that an immoral law cannot be valid. Cicero, Grotius, Coke, Blackstone, Burlamaqui, Vattel, Burke, Jefferson, do all affirm this, and I cite them, not that they can give evidence to what is indisputable, but because, though lawyers and practical statesmen, the habit of their profession did not hide from them that this truth was the foundation of States. Here was the question, Are you for man and for the good of man; or are you for the hurt and harm of man?
  12. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson: Miscellanies, Vol. 11, "Notes: The fugitive slave law, New York, 1854", page 589. Quote: Page 226, note 1. Professor John H. Wright of Harvard University has kindly furnished me with the passage from Dio Cassius, xlvii. 49, where it is said of Brutus:— [ gap: ] —which he renders, "He cried out this sentiment of Heracles, 'O wretched Virtue, after all, thou art a name, but I cherished thee as a fact. Fortune's slave wast thou;' and called upon one of those with him to slay him." Professor Wright adds that Theodorus Prodromus, a Byzantine poet of the twelfth century, said, "What Brutus says (O Virtue, etc.) I pronounce to be ignoble and unworthy of Brutus's soul." It seems very doubtful whence the Greek verses came.